In the Eastern Mediterranean, Greek cities emerged with force. In their struggles against the Persians, the Greeks developed a new type of training: the Phalanx. The Greeks were armed with a long spear, helmet, breastplate and a large shield called hoplon. Thus, was called the soldiers that comprised the Phalanx Hoplites. The Phalanx was the tool of expansion of the Macedonian empire, stretching from the central Mediterranean to the India. This empire reached its apogee with Alexander the great.
Greeks and Persians also developed big guns for the siege of towns such as Battering Rams, catapults and towers of assault.